LMI-Learning - Labour Market Information - Online Learning Modules - NGRF

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LMI-Learning is being developed by the Institute for Employment Research , University of Warwick, together with KnowNet. Financial support has come from the Sector Skills Development Agency.
UPDATE October 2011. The LMI Modules content in this site is out of date. Watch the new Warwick site for updates.

The underpinning theory: frameworks for practice

Research evidence tells us that labour market information (LMI) is highly valued by clients of career guidance. A recent study 1, for example, found that 98% of clients rated guidance interviews as ‘useful’ where LMI was a key feature. All of these clients had been given general LMI by practitioners in their guidance interviews (e.g. information about educational routes, useful contacts, job vacancies, etc.). In addition, 73% of clients had been given information about various resources (e.g. websites); and 29% were given information about job options.

 Given the high value placed by clients on LMI in career guidance, it is hardly surprising that LMI is an integral feature of the major evidence-based frameworks that inform guidance practice. The particular way(s) in which practitioners use LMI with their clients will depend on which framework is being used to inform practice.

Below are 6 examples of ways in which LMI is used in 6 well-known frameworks, together with a new approach used by CAREERS SCOTLAND: 

Six Frameworks for Practice

DIFFERENTIAL

(e.g. Alec Rodgers, John Holland)

LMI will be given directly to clients by practitioners during a guidance interview and the meaning interpreted by the practitioner, with the intention of changing behaviour (e.g. information about application deadlines for courses or jobs given to motivate clients to adhere to these deadlines). more...

DEVELOPMENTAL

(e.g. Donald Super, Eli Ginzberg)

As in the humanistic and psychodynamic approaches, practitioners may provide clients access to sources of LMI and methods of accessing these sources as a means of both assessing interest in an occupational goal and developing the necessary research skills for clients to undertake their own future investigations. more...

HUMANISTIC

(Person-Centred; e.g. Carl Rogers, Gerard Egan)


Practitioners may provide clients access to sources of LMI and methods of accessing these sources as a means of both assessing interest in an occupational goal and developing the necessary research skills for clients to undertake their own future investigations. more...

SOCIAL LEARNING

(e.g. John Krumboltz)


Practitioners may use LMI in a way that allows recipients to interact with it (e.g. use of a true/false quiz to challenge misunderstandings and misconceptions about an occupational sector) in a way that is aimed at educating the client. more...



PSYCHODYNAMIC

(e.g. Anne Roe, Mark Savickas)

As in the developmental and humanistic approaches, practitioners may provide clients access to sources of LMI and methods of accessing these sources as a means of both assessing interest in an occupational goal and developing the necessary research skills for clients to undertake their own future investigations. more...

STRUCTURAL

(e.g. Ken Roberts, Bill Law, Phil Hodkinson)

Clients are given direct access to high-quality labour market information. Practitioners make themselves available to support clients in their self-directed search for the information needed. more...

More about these approaches:

DIFFERENTIAL (e.g. Alec Rodgers, John Holland)

There is a fuller treatment of differential approaches in the NGRF's Improving Practice section.

Task:
Assessment of abilities, aptitudes, etc. using various tools
Process:
Matching, the person with the ‘best fit’ career
Outcomes:
Rational decision-making
Interview Techniques:
Emphasises assessment & use of valid and reliable information
LMI:
Has a central role during the career guidance process

Adapted from: Walsh, B.W. (1990) A summary and integration of career counseling approaches, in W.B. Walsh & H. Osipow (eds) Career Counseling: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association

  • The framework that informs practice will determine the way in which practitioners use LMI with their clients. This, in turn, will (at least in part), determine the type of LMI they indicate that they need for effective guidance practice. Consequently, there is little agreement within the broad advice and guidance community about the type of LMI that is essential for effective practice.

DEVELOPMENTAL (e.g. Donald Super, Eli Ginzberg)

There is a fuller treatment of developmental approaches in the NGRF's Improving Practice section.

Task:
Appraisal of client’s stage of career development
Process:
Appraisal of developmental stage, which reveals new meanings & possibilities
Outcomes:
Overall, enhance the career development process for the client by helping them to achieve self-determined objectives and make choices
Interview Techniques:
Interpretation, to discover associations
LMI:
Little emphasis during the career guidance process

Adapted from: Walsh, B.W. (1990) A summary and integration of career counseling approaches, in W.B. Walsh & H. Osipow (eds) Career Counseling: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association

HUMANISTIC: PERSON-CENTRED (e.g. Carl Rogers, Gerard Egan)

There is a fuller treatment of humanistic approaches in the NGRF's Lifelong Learning section.

Task:
The focus will be on an area of client control, with the locus of control remaining with the client throughout
Process:
Creating the psychological climate in which the client becomes self-reliant, able to identify and implement their career plan
Outcomes:
Self-discovery & implementation of self-concept
Interview Techniques:
Genuineness, unconditional positive regard & empathy
LMI:
Practitioner expertise is available to clients, though a large component is not made available during the interview

Adapted from: Walsh, B.W. (1990) A summary and integration of career counseling approaches, in W.B. Walsh & H. Osipow (eds) Career Counseling: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association

SOCIAL LEARNING (e.g. John Krumboltz)

There is a fuller treatment of Social Learning approaches in the NGRF's Improving Practice section.

Task:
Evaluate the accuracy of client’s learning
Process:
Understand client goals & resolve goal conflicts - give information & solve problems
Outcomes:
Define core goals (identify motives)
Interview Techniques:
Reinforcement; modelling and development of decision-making skills
LMI:
Used to challenge misconceptions, stimulate exploration and develop decision-making skills

Adapted from: Walsh, B.W. (1990) A summary and integration of career counseling approaches, in W.B. Walsh & H. Osipow (eds) Career Counseling: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association

PSYCHODYNAMIC (e.g. Anne Roe, Mark Savickas)

There is a fuller treatment of psychodynamic approaches in the NGRF's Improving Practice section.

Task:
Assessment of life themes using pre-determined questions
Process:
Making connections amongst episodes in client’s life
Outcomes:
Assist client find vocational opportunities to develop life themes
Interview Techniques:
Interpretation, for the purpose of self-exploration
LMI:
Little emphasis

Adapted from: Walsh, B.W. (1990) A summary and integration of career counseling approaches, in W.B. Walsh & H. Osipow (eds) Career Counseling: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association

STRUCTURAL (e.g. Ken Roberts, Bill Law, Phil Hodkinson)

There is a fuller treatment of structuralist approaches in the NGRF's Improving Practice section.

Task:
Review the client’s situation and appraise client’s ‘world view’.
Process:
Assist client to compare their beliefs & perceptions with factual data.
Outcomes:
Access to education, training and employment opportunities
Interview Techniques:
Use of counselling skills to support client’s adjustment to, and acceptance of their situation.
LMI:
High quality information freely accessible to clients.

Adapted from: Walsh, B.W. (1990) A summary and integration of career counseling approaches, in W.B. Walsh & H. Osipow (eds) Career Counseling: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association

Careers Scotland’s Approach to Guidance Model

The Approach to Guidance Model is the framework adopted by Careers Scotland to inform its guidance practice.  It has been designed to enable Career Advisers and their clients to identify and resolve actual career planning needs. 

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